682 MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE
was thus poisoned by 1/50 grain as also by 1/100 grain of the alkaloid. It
appears that belladonna leaves and fruit had been eaten by the animals from
whose livers the extract was manufactured.
Suicidal cases have occurred from swallowing the liniment or extract.
In his annual report for the year 1949, the Chemical Examiner, Bengal,
mentions the case of a boy who committed suicide by taking atropine.
Homicidal cases are rare. A case is recorded in which a woman, aged
50 years, was first drugged with atropine and then murdered by her throat
being cut with a sharp cutting instrument.19 Atropine with cocaine was
supposed to have been given by Clark of Agra to Fulham to simulate the
symptoms of heat apoplexy.
Atropine is eliminated from the system chiefly by the kidneys. Con-
sequently it can be detected in an unchanged condition in the urine.
Homatr opine hydrobromide (Homatropinae hydrobromidum).—This is a salt of
homatropine, an artificial or synthetic alkaloid, prepared by the condensation of tropine
with mandelic acid in the presence of hydrochloric acid. It is a colourless, crystalline
powder, soluble in 6 parts of water and in 18 parts of alcohol (90%). It is a constituent
of Lamella* h-omatropmce, each disc containing 1/100 grain of homatropine hydrobromide.
It is largely used in ophthalmic practice, as its effects subside more quickly than those
of atropine. A case occurred in the King George's Hospital, Lucknow, where 20 to 25
drops of a 1 per cent solution of homatropine hydrobromide instilled into the eyes for a
period of 3 hours caused some poisonous symptoms.
HYOSCYAMUS NIGER (HENBANE, KHORASANI AJWAYAN)
This plant belongs to N.O. Solanaceae, and grows wild throughout the
Himalayan range. All parts of the plant are poisonous, but the seeds are
more poisonous. The seeds, leaves, and green flowering tops yield three
active principles, hyoscyamine, hyoscine and atropine.
Hyoscyamine occurs both as a crystalline and as an amorphous alka-
loidal substance. It is slightly soluble in water but freely in alcohol (90
per cent), chloroform and ether. It is isomeric with atropine, into which
it can be readily converted. It may be split up into hyoscine and hyosdnic
acid. Hyoscine is a syrupy alkaloid synonymous with scopolamine* It is
slightly soluble in water, but readily dissolves in alcohol (90 per cent) , ether,
chloroform and dilute acids. It is considered five times more powerful
therapeutically than hyoscyamine. Its official preparation, Hyo&cinw hydro
bromidum (Hyoscine or scopolamine hydrobromide), occurs in colourless,
transparent, rhombic crystals, having a slightly bitter taste. It is soluble in
water and in alcohol (90 per cent) . The dose is 1/200 to 1/100 grain. It is
contained in Oculentum hyoscinw (strength, 0.125 per cent), and Injectio
hyoscinse hydrobromidi, dose, 1/200 to 1/100 grain.
PharmacoiKieial Preparations.— The Mowing are the official prepara-
tions of powdered hyoscyamus (Hyoscyami Pulvis) .
1. Extractum hyoscy&mi liguidum.—It contains 0.05 per cent of the alkaloids. Dose,
3 to 6 minims. '
2. Extractum hyoscyami siccum,—lt contains 0.3 per cent of the alkaloids. Dose,
£ to 1 grain.
3. Pilula colocynthidis et hyoscyami.—lt contains 12.5 per cent of dry extract of
hyoscyamus. Dose, 4 to 8 grains.
r, \J,inCMra. hyoscy<*>™-—ft contains 0.005 per cent of the alkaloid, hyoscyamine.
.uose, 30 to oO minims.
Symptoms.— These are the same as in da
ot so marked, while there is greater tende
19. Bengal Chem. Exam. Annual Rep., 1922, p. 6.
Symptoms.— These are the same as in datura poisoning, but delirium is
not so marked, while there is greater tendency to sleep, insensibility and